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Full text of "Measuring minds : an examiner's manual to accompany the Myers mental measure"

LIBRARY 

Walter E. Fernald 
State School 




Waverley, Massachusetts 
No. 4 I 









MEASURING MINDS 

AN EXAMINER'S MANUAL 
TO ACCOMPANY 

THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE 



BY 
CAROLINE E. MYERS 

AND 

GARRY C. MYERS, Ph.D. 

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY, 
CLEVELAND SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 




\ 









V 






\ 



NEWSON & COMPANY 

NEW YORK and CHICAGO 



Copyright, 1920, 
By CAROLINE E. MEYERS 

Copyright, 1921, 
By NEWSON & COMPANY 



All rights reserved 
(1) 



PREFACE 

This Manual attempts to give the aims, purposes, and appli- 
cation of intelligence tests in general and of The Myers Mental 
Measure in particular. It is written with the hope that it will 
be of aid to all who use intelligence ratings regardless of what 
test is used. 

The authors take a conservative attitude toward the functions 
of intelligence tests, pointing out some of their shortcomings 
but at the same time attempting to show how the ratings of 
intelligence tests can be used to bring the best results. 

The Myers Mental Measure is offered to supply a very practical 
need of a group intelligence test: 

1. That is a single continuous scale of a few pages applicable 
to all ages. 

2. That correlates pretty highly with Stanford-Binet. 

3. That is independent of school experience; that finds the 
bright child who would not ordinarily be found in terms of his 
school performance. 

4. That any teacher can learn to give accurately and that any 
clerk can learn to score with precision. 

5. That is brief and simple, yet scientific. 

In this Manual are presented graphs and tables which the 
authors offer in evidence of their belief that The Myers Mental 
Measure meets with the above-named criteria. 

General and specific directions for giving and scoring the tests 
are presented together with norms based on over 15,000 cases 

3 



MEASURING MINDS 

AN EXAMINER'S MANUAL 

THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE: ITS MEANING 

AND USE 

Aims of Intelligence Tests 

Intelligence tests aim: 

1. To aid the Administrator. 

(a) To classify his children on the basis of native capac- 
ities; especially to pick out children of marked ability. 

(b) To measure the efficiency of his school organization 
and his teachers by checking up the school product with the 
abilities of the children concerned. 

2. To aid the teacher. 

(a) To know what to expect of herself and her individual 
pupils. 

(b) To be more keenly aware of individual difference. 

3. To aid the employer. 

(a) To make a hasty classification of his employees, 
especially to find early his foremen and other leaders. 

How Intelligence Tests Differ from Educational 

Measurements 
Educational tests and measurements have been used for 
a number of years in the public schools with great success. 

5 



Along come the intelligence tests to supplement educational 
measurements making them more effectual. Wherein do 
the two types of tests differ? Educational measurements 
are a kind of yardstick designed to evaluate the quantity 
and quality of school performance. By them the school 
man can determine how well his children do, in arithmetic or 
writing or reading, say, as compared with the average per- 
formance of several thousand children of different school 
systems in that school subject. Moreover, by these educa- 
tional measurements in one or more school subjects the 
performance by one group of children, or by one school 
system can be compared with the performance by other 
groups or systems. 

While actual school performance is thus measured con- 
siderable information about the intelligence, or capacity to 
learn, is also obtained. In other words, how well a child 
can read, or write, or spell, or do arithmetical sums, tells 
something about that child's intelligence. To get on well 
in school presupposes a certain degree of native capacity 
to learn. However, common observation suggests that not 
all who get on well in school do so because of marked native 
ability. With a reasonable amount of it some children 
achieve much because of their excessive zeal and industry. 
Likewise, often those who have a great capacity to learn 
get on poorly. Educational measurements tell only how the 
child has got along in school. To determine how he ought 
to get along in school is the aim of the intelligence tests. 
They aim to tell what the child should do and with what 
relative speed he ought to learn; while educational measure- 
ments tell with what speed he has learned. Intelligence 

6 



tests are prospective; educational measurements retro- 
spective. Of the two therefore the former are the more 
fundamental. By them the latter are rendered more 
effectual and certainly more scientific. Unless the relative 
learning ability of two or more groups of children is known, 
their degree of performance can not be accurately adjudged. 
It is not what a given child or group of children actually 
do in school work that is significant, but what they do in 
relation to their native abilities. The intelligence test 
measures relative native abilities. It is obviously desir- 
able, therefore, that an intelligence test should be inde- 
pendent of school experience. 

Kinds of Intelligence Tests 

Before the late War there were in use several intelligence 
tests, chief of which were the original Simon Binet, Ter- 
man's Stanford Revision of Binet, Goddard's Revision of 
Binet, and Yerkes-Bridges' Point Scale. Such tests were 
pretty highly standardized and have been considered to 
measure intelligence with a high degree of accuracy. But 
they are all designed to test only one person at a time, 
requiring from twenty minutes to an hour for each examina- 
tion. When the army testing began it was readily seen 
that although the available individual tests could not 
easily be improved upon in accuracy, to use these measures 
was far too slow a procedure. Tests were needed to 
examine several hundred at a time. To supply this need 
there were developed the Army group tests, Alpha for those 
who could read and write English, Beta for those who were 
illiterate in English. Out of the Army testing have grown 

7 



a number of group intelligence tests adapted to school 
children. Most have been an imitation of Alpha with 
emphasis on language exercises, applying, consequently, 
only to the upper grades and high schools. A few authors, 
imitating Beta, have developed tests for the first few grades 
only. The authors of The Myers Mental Measure have 
combined many of the best principles of Alpha and Beta and 
Stanford-Binet into a single continuous scale consisting 
wholly of pictures and applicable to all ages and degrees 
of school experience. Each section of this test sets tasks 
easy and simple enough for the kindergarten child and at 
the same time other tasks hard enough for the university 
student. In this respect this test is unique. 

Desirability of Complete Intelligence Surveys of 

Schools 

Although the Army tests were applied to whole com- 
panies, whole regiments, and whole divisions at a time, most 
testing in schools to date has been spasmodic, on a few 
classes or a few grades here and there, in a given school 
system. The first complete intelligence survey of a city 
school system of any size was made by Supt. S. H. Layton 
of Altoona, Pa. In this survey The Myers Mental Measure 
was used because it could be given to all ages and grades 
of children including high school seniors.* 

Since that time other cities have been surveyed in a like 
manner. All the children of a city, however large, can thus 
be tested in a single day or half day, by a single continuous 
scale. 

*See Annual Report of the Altoona Public Schools, June, 1920. 

8 



By such a survey the superintendent can get a con- 
centrated record of all children of a given grade. He can 
compare the intelligence ratings by the children of the 
various classes within this grade. Moreover, he can com- 
pare the ratings by each grade with those by every other 
grade, since the same scale is used throughout. When he 
follows up by his educational measurements he can deter- 
mine how a given grade overlaps in amount of school per- 
formance, the grades above it and below it. With like 
overlapping of the grades in the intelligence ratings he can 
make comparisons that will be very significant. 

Whole counties of rural schools, just as whole cities, have 
been surveyed by this single group intelligence scale. 

Spasmodic testing, although not ideal, is worth while. 
Some of the best information available on the value of 
intelligence tests has come through such procedure. 
Indeed, any supervisor, principal, or teacher can profit 
by the use of an intelligence test, however limited, if the 
ratings therefrom are used to advantage. 

Getting Ready for an Intelligence Survey 

If a given school system is to have an intelligence survey, 
detailed preparation should be made quietly after the fash- 
ion of getting ready to a go over the top." Let the super- 
intendent, or an expert designated by him, coach the prin- 
cipals and those of the teachers selected to give the tests. 
Let every tester be imbued with the idea that the directions 
are to be followed to the letter and that in order "to put 
over" these directions each tester must be very familiar 
with them and with the process of precise reading of "sec- 

9 



onds" on a watch. Accurate timing of each test is of the 
greatest importance. 

Getting the Children Ready 
At the appointed hour for beginning the test in each build- 
ing, those testing should be careful to make sure that the 
children are comfortable and that they assume a cooper- 
ative attitude. To the lower grade children this test may 
be referred to by the tester as a game to be played by set 
rules. To those of the upper grades, and especially of the 
high school, this test should be referred to seriously as a test, 
ratings by which to be matters of official records. But in 
no case should there be the slightest suggestion that will 
excite or disturb those taking the test. 

In case the teacher tests her own children the greatest 
danger is that the children will not take the test with 
sufficient seriousness and that the teacher will still main- 
tain her teaching attitude toward the children. Therefore, 
in spite of her desire to follow the instructions of the manual 
verbatim she will, unless very careful, be prone to vary 
toward giving undue advantage to her children. Every 
teacher who tests needs to be cautioned strongly on this 
point. 

Intelligence Ratio 

The sum of the points made on The Myers Mental Measure 
is known as the raw score. For the purpose of comparing 
grades and schools by this test this raw score is all that is 
necessary. But for all other purposes this raw score should 
be considered in relation to chronological age. Anyone 
can readily see that a child of nine years who makes a 

10 



raw score of 40 points is much superior to the nine year old 
child who makes a score of only 15 points. Hence the best 
measure is an intelligence ratio computed by dividing the 
raw score by the age-in-months. For example, Willie 
Winger has a raw score of 23. He is 109 months of age. 
Willie Winger has an intelligence ratio of .21. It is obvious 
that if a child is old for his grade he may make a relatively 
high raw score. If however, that score is divided by 
the chronological age-in-months of that child his score 
(intelligence ratio) will be greatly reduced in value. Prob- 
ably that child will actually rank relatively low in his class 
just as he probably should, since most over-aged children 
of a given grade are in that grade because of their relatively 
inferior intelligence. The Intelligence Ratio is very simple. 
Anyone can compute it. Anyone can understand it. It 
admits of no confusion. It is a very reliable measure. It 
can be derived from any group intelligence test. 

Intelligence Ratio Should not be Confused with the 
Intelligence Quotient of an Individual Test 

Unfortunately in the first edition of this Manual the 
Intelligence Ratio was called Intelligence Quotient. Of 
course this term was not incorrect but it was slightly ambigu- 
ous to some. However, it was clearly explained there to mean 
" Raw Score divided by chronological age-in-months." 
Owing to the danger of its being confused with the more 
traditional use of the Intelligence Quotient (I. Q.) the more 
appropriate name, Intelligence Ratio, has been adopted. 



11 



Meaning of I. Q. 

The term I. Q. has been used very carelessly , often in 
almost complete ignorance by its user, especially the lay- 
man. 

Terman first used it in his Stanford Revision of the Binet 
Test. For each part of that test correctly passed by the 
child a certain number of months are credited. The total 
of all these points scored by the child equals that child's 
mental age-in-months. The child's mental age-in-months 
(raw score) divided by his chronological age-in-months gives 
the intelligence quotient (I. Q.) of that child. Let it be 
remembered, however, that each credit the child earns in 
the Stanford-Binet is in terms of months, and that no group 
test gives a score in such terms. 

Of course, if the total number of points earned in Stan- 
ford-Binet is divided by twelve the mental age of that child 
will be in terms of years. Then if this mental age-in-years 
is divided by that child's chronological age-in-years the 
same I. Q. may be derived as if the divisor and dividend had 
each been in months. 

Analogous to such a procedure an I. Q. as generally used 
in relation to group tests may be derived from The Myers 
Mental Measure. To illustrate, a given child making 35 
points is, on the average, 10 years old. We may say that 
he has a mental age of 10 years. See table, page 55. Sup- 
pose this child were 9 years old. Then his intelligence 
quotient is 10 divided by 9 or 1.11. This procedure is in 
keeping with common usage with group tests but it is 
obviously not very accurate. Moreover, the term, intel- 
ligence quotient, suggests an identity with an I. Q. of a 

12 



standardized individual test, and consequently suggests 
clinical attributes. Therefore the authors of The Myers Men- 
tal Measure do not recommend its use. They prefer the 
intelligence ratio — raw score divided by chronological 
age-in-months, as the more accurate and as unambiguous. 

But how can scores by different tests be compared except 
by intelligence quotients? Save in terms of ranking they 
never can be compared with accuracy, intelligence quotient 
or no intelligence quotient. Ratings by any two intelli- 
gence scales are not wholly commensurate. Why not 
admit it? The ratings by any scale have a meaning in 
respect to that scale and nothing more. This fact makes 
all the more desirable a single scale that is continuous, 
that measures the first grade child and at the same time the 
university student,— in short, that measures intelligence 
for all ages. If, on the other hand, there is a scale for the 
first two or three grades, another for the next few grades, 
and so on, how can the ratings of the lower scale ever be 
compared with the ratings by the higher scale? Suppose, 
for example, a given scale that applies only to the first three 
grades is used, and a second scale that applies only to the 
next five grades, how can the ratings by the second and third 
grades be compared with the ratings by the fourth and fifth 
grades? They never can be compared. 

Compilation of Data 

Although every teacher will want the individual scores of 
her pupils and will want constantly to check up with the 
school progress of each pupil in relation to this intelligence 
rating, the administrator and supervisor will be interested 

13 



most in the ratings by the groups. How shall he proceed 
to study them? 

The first step is to condense the data into larger units. 
With The Myers Mental Measure it has been convenient 
to group the individual ratings as follows : 



Raw Score 


Intelligence Ratio 


Score 


Number Cases 


Score 


Number Cases 


1- 5 

6-10 

11-15 

16-20 

21-25 


1 

4 
6 
5 

1 


.01-05 
.06-. 10 
.11-15 
.16-. 20 
.21-. 25 


1 
5 

8 
4 

1 



Under "Raw Score " one reads, for example, "One case 
scored between 1 and 5 points; 4 cases scored between 6 and 
10 points, etc." A mere glance at this table tells the reader 
a great deal about the group. In like manner the intelli- 
gence ratio can be read. 

One can represent graphically the raw score thus: 



6 
5 






' 












4 
3 
2 




























i 
















1 


1 

o 


1 


1 

o 


1 





14 



The spaces on the base line between the points are the 
values or scores. Each block represents a case. From the 
graph one also reads: "One case scored between 1 and 5, 
4 cases scored between 6 and 10, etc." 

This picture is called the " distribution graph." If, 
instead of the angular boundaries, the edges were smoothed 
the graph would look like this : 




i 

to* 

Whether in blocks or in curves the trend taken is that of 
the Normal Probability Curve of Distribution. 

Meaning of the Normal Probability Curve of 

Distribution 

The table above from which this graph is derived is a 
fictitious one. However, if one were to measure 10,000 
individuals of homogeneous groups, i.e., groups whose 
common element measured is an indispensable element, one 
would find a distribution similar to that indicated above 
but a better one. 

Suppose one were to measure the head circumference of 
10,000 male Americans of Irish descent, 21 years of age. 
One would find a large number of heads of about aver- 

15 



age circumference. For each decreasing unit in circum- 
ference the number would grow smaller as well as for each 
increasing unit in circumference. Let these measures from 
the smallest head among the 10,000 to the largest head 
among them range in measures represented by a, b, c, d, e, 
f, g, h, i. Representing these measures graphically one 
would get the following distribution : 



B C D E P G H 



Whatever one were to measure in the biological world 
would distribute after this fashion, if the number of cases 
were great enough and if they represented random sampling 
of sufficiently homogeneous groups. 

Let it be remembered that a smooth curve of distribution, 
or one closely after the normal probability curve, can not 
always be expected for small groups, since relatively small 
numbers have a poor chance to be wholly representative. 

If an intelligence test distributes its scores within each 
age and grade after the manner of the normal distribution, 
that test would seem to be a highly reliable one. Let us 
see what The Myers Mental Measure does. 

On pages 18 and 19 are graphically presented distribu- 
tions, by raw scores and by intelligence ratios, for each age 

16 



and grade of the 3,092 elementary school children of the 
East Cleveland schools, by this test. On page 21 are 
graphic distributions of the raw scores by 810 high school 
seniors (and of the intelligence ratios by 182 of these), of 
the raw score by 128 entrants to a city normal school, by 
260 elementary school teachers, by 493 college students, and 
by 170 boys of a school for "Incorrigibles." The intelligence 
ratios are in hundredths while the raw scores are in integral 
numbers. 

Median Scores by East Cleveland 

(3,092 cases) 

By Grades Regardless of Chronological age 

Number cases 446 380 380 393 382 371 388 352 

Grades I II III IV V VI VII VIII 

Raw score 14 24 30 38 41 44 48 54 

Intelligence ratio 17 .25 .29 .31 .31 .31 .30 .32 

By Chronological Ages Regardless of Grades 

Number cases.. . 116 384 375 374 347 392 324 371 269 110 27 

Ages 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

Raw score 12 16 26 32 37 41 46 49 51 47 47 

Intelligence ratio .14 .19 .27 .29 .31 .31 .32 .31 .30 .27 .24 

By comparing these medians with the medians of the 
larger groups (see pages 54 and 55), which are offered as the 
Norms for this test, it will be seen that the East Cleveland 
scores range relatively high, as would be expected, this 
being a suburban city. 

For the raw scores by grades the medians are indicated 
graphically illustrating an added means of showing inter- 
relation of all groups within an entire school system. 

17 



Distribution Graphs of 3,092 Elementary School Children of East 
Cleveland by Ages. (The ages are represented by the numerals 
between the pairs of graphs.) 



Raw Score 



Intelligence Ratio 



Percent 
Ctses 
20 

15 

10 
5 



20 
15 
10 
5 



=e_ 



15 
10 
5 

or- 1 



1 



10 




_ ^ Ui 2 £ <Jf v> o> CX> "J -si' QD 00 to" 

TiT 0s *7*Oi , ^'O> — oi —■ o> ■—• o» •— o> — <K *- 




to <=> i* *- k» ^ t* ^T^^S"™o^n^b^ 

•p- o* ** o **■ <J* **■ o> *— o> •*■ 0k *• 



18 



Distribution Graphs Continued of 3,092 Elementary School Chil- 
dren of East Cleveland by Ages. (The ages are represented by 
the numerals between the pairs of graphs.) 



Raw Score 



Intelligence Ratio 



Per Cent 
Cases 

20 

15 
10 
5 



15 




14 



13 




12 



VerCent 
Cases 

20 
15 
10 
5 



X 




§ sT=: fe £ S S i* £ $ 2 $ s' 

<jr O V O yi O V> <=• U< O <-" O 



19 



Raw Score 



Intelligence Ratio 




Score ,3 «8S 



20 



Distribution Graphs by Raw Score of 810 High School Seniors a* 
Graduation, 128 Normal School Entrants 260 Elementary 
School Teachers, 493 College Students, and 170 Bad Boys 
also by Intelligence Ratio of 182 High School Seniors. 



Raw Score 



Intelligence Ratio 



Ver Cent 
Cases 
15 



10 
5 



R-TL 



Bad Boys School 




20 
15 
10 
5 




El. Teachers 



Tlortnal School 




<J\ <J\ © <X> 



~ 21 *» *° W W — 

score ..^miyi^y,),^^ 



oc <p <o o © — 

oi O y\ O u\ © 



- N N o> 0< A ^ U 



21 



These graphs show conclusively that the ratings by The 
Myers Mental Measure distribute in very close accord- 
ance with the probability curve of normal distribution re- 
gardless of the age and school experience of the groups 
studied ; what some experts have contended could not be 
done. 

Space will not admit of the tables of distribution from 
which these graphs are constructed but the medians are 
presented on page 20. 

Since the groups represented by the graphs do not have 
the same number of cases all the numerical distributions 
were reduced to a percentage basis. To illustrate, the raw 
scores for Grade II, East Cleveland are thus reduced: 

Score 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 

Number of cases 1 5 21 39 77 74 

Percentage of cases 26 1.31 5.52 10.27 20.26 19.47 

Score 26-30 31-35 36-40 41^5 46-50 51-55 

Number of cases 72 50 25 8 6 2 

Percentage of cases 18.95 13.16 6.58 2.11 1.58 .52 

Such a reduction on the scale of 100 per cent is always 
desirable when such groups are compared by distribution 
graphs. 

All the tables of distribution from which the graphs are 
built are incorporated in the larger distribution tables below, 
which, in turn, incorporate also like tables from the school 
children of Cleveland, Altoona, Painesville, O., Cleveland 
Heights, O., Western Reserve University, Ohio Wesleyan 
University, Hiram College, Lake Erie College, and Wooster 
College. For the college group the cases are pretty 
evenly distributed among the four years. 

22 



The medians derived from these total distribution tables 
are offered as tentative norms for The Myers Mental 
Measure. They appear at the foot of the tables and again, 
in a more condensed form, on pages 54 and 55. 



Distribution of Raw Scores by Grades 











15,241 cases 








Grades 


K 


I 


I] 


III IV V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


Score 

























5 23 


6 


2 










1- 5 


17 244 99 J 


L3 


8 


2 


1 




6- 10 


11 329 195 59 24 


6 


2 




11- 15 




7 338 233 155 56 26 2 


4 




16- 20 




1 21 


L3 294 253 137 57 17 


25 




21- 25 




3 137 246 332 193 134 59 


39 


6 


26- 30 




1 74 168 297 248 243 102 


89 


33 


31- 35 




26 106 234 291 325 187 


144 


74 


36- 40 




21 55 169 276 317 255 


196 


151 


41- 45 






5 : 


L9 110 194 277 240 


215 


201 


46- 50 






i 


L4 55 111 220 217 


249 


251 


51- 55 








7 24 47 144 143 


234 


209 


56- 60 








5 ] 


L2 27 89 123 


143 


211 


61- 65 










2 10 55 55 


121 


137 


66- 70 










3 


4 1 


L5 45 


78 


103 


71- 75 










1 


1 


8 26 


20 


67 


76- 80 












1 


3 12 


24 


62 


81- 85 












2 


1 7 


14 


23 


86- 90 














4 


1 


15 


91- 95 














1 


6 


4 


95-100 
















3 


3 


101-105 






















105-110 
















1 





111-115 





















116-120 
















1 





Total cases 45 1,410 1,447 1,721 1,630 1,922 1,495 1,610 1,550 
Median 6.2 12.6 19.2 26.8 33.6 38.6 43.6 47.8 52.4 

23 



DlSTRIBl 


JTION 


of Raw Scores by 


Grades 


(Continued) 








15,241 


cases 











IX 


X 


XI 




XII 


Normal 
School 


Elem. 
Teachers 


Col- 
lege 


1- 5 
















• 


6- 10 


















11- 15 


















16- 20 










l 


1 






21- 25 













2 


1 




26- 30 


1 


2 


2 




8 


5 





3 


31- 35 


9 


5 


2 




13 


2 


1 


2 


36- 40 


19 


4 


2 




27 


3 


13 


8 


41- 45 


40 


25 


8 




43 


8 


14 


23 


46- 50 


39 


28 


15 




85 


13 


25 


35 


51- 55 


48 


36 


19 




90 


18 


39 


43 


56- 60 


49 


37 


27 




100 


12 


35 


46 


61- 65 


28 


28 


24 




94 


24 


22 


53 


66- 70 


29 


20 


15 




101 


12 


37 


51 


71- 75 


25 


25 


19 




78 


9 


26 


58 


76- 80 


5 


11 


13 




65 


7 


15 


62 


81- 85 


11 


17 


6 




40 


6 


17 


45 


86- 90 


6 


3 


4 




28 


1 


4 


30 


91- 95 


2 


4 


1 




18 


5 


8 


16 


96-100 




1 


2 




14 




1 


11 


101-105 


. . 


1 


1 




3 


. . 


1 


3 


106-110 




2 






2 







3 


111-115 














1 


1 


Total cases 


311 


249 


160 




810 


128 


250 


493 


Median 


55.9 


59.3 


62.0 


24 


63.0 


61.0 


61.4 


69.3 



Age 

Score 


1- 5 
6- 10 
11- 15 
16- 20 
21- 25 
26- 30 
31- 35 
36- 40 
41- 45 
46- 50 
51- 55 
56- 60 
61- 65 
66- 70 
71- 75 
76- 80 
81- 85 
83- 90 
91- 95 
96-100 

101-105 

106-110 



Distribution of Raw Scores by Ages 
10,859 cases 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 



16 17 



10 13 

138 104 

145 198 

101 274 

59 228 

35 172 

13 103 

8 47 



29 
11 
7 
5 
1 
1 



4 

56 

107 

156 

205 

202 

189 

140 

86 

40 

30 

13 

6 

2 

1 



1 1 

25 11 4 

62 26 14 
101 54 31 
165 110 53 
215 149 95 
236 148 135 
209 200 193 
176 219 216 
126 133 189 

63 105 150 
80 98 
31 
18 



6 
11 
33 

47 



30 

23 

6 

3 



5 
2 
3 


1 



67 
37 

22 
7 
4 
2 



3 

6 
17 
20 
32 
88 61 
134 114 

166 142 

167 156 
158 161 
122 155 
101 113 

45 87 



45 
21 
6 
8 
3 
2 
2 

1 



58 

38 

27 

7 

5 

1 

1 



1 

1 

4 

10 

22 

38 

56 

105 

121 

151 

100 

108 

68 

44 

38 

34 

18 

7 

2 



2 

1 

3 

4 

8 

13 

33 

64 

56 

70 

41 

44 

40 

19 

11 

19 

7 

3 

4 

3 









2 

1 

5 

7 

8 

9 

15 

10 

11 

3 

5 

6 

3 

2 

1 



1 

1 


2 
2 
3 

2 
1 

2 
2 
1 


2 



Total cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88 19 
Median 9.7 16.1 23.2 29.2 34.8 39.1 43.9 47.6 49.5 48.7 50.0 47.2 

25 



Distribution of Intelligence Ratio by Grades 

11,827 cases 





1 


11 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


VIII 


XII 


00 


23 


6 


2 














.01-05 


209 


102 


19 


15 


3 








- 


.06-. 10 


265 


172 


80 


54 


23 


6 


11 


1 




.11-15 


298 


245 


195 


135 


81 


42 


25 


24 


6 


.16-. 20 


230 


284 


268 


241 


224 


126 


118 


95 


18 


.21-25 


165 


229 


273 


272 


334 


256 


251 


238 


44 


.26-. 30 


109 


172 


284 


334 


367 


288 


232 


352 


46 


.31-35 


58 


130 


176 


279 


292 


240 


245 


341 


41 


.36-. 40 


28 


50 


95 


161 


177 


174 


157 


226 


19 


.41-. 45 


15 


27 


58 


87 


108 


95 


77 


140 


6 


.46-. 50 


2 


15 


28 


27 


57 


48 


41 


46 


2 


.51-. 55 


4 


8 


12 


16 


19 


24 


11 


11 




.56-. 60 


2 


6 


3 


6 


10 


7 


4 


2 




.61-. 65 











2 


1 


5 


3 


1 




.66-. 70 


1 


1 


2 


1 






2 







.71-. 75 






1 










1 





Total cases 1410 1447 1496 1630 1696 1311 1177 1478 182 
Median .145 .195 .244 .275 .285 .299 .299 .314 .285 



26 



Distribution of Intelligence Ratios by Ages 

10,859 cases 



Age 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


Score 


























00 


10 


13 


4 





1 


1 














.01-05 


114 


86 


59 


29 


14 


10 


7 


6 


1 


2 





1 


.06-. 10 


113 


153 


110 


77 


45 


25 


13 


21 


10 


6 


2 


2 


.11-. 15 


92 


246 


148 


140 


107 


86 


47 


38 


34 


18 


4 





.16-. 20 


68 


225 


198 


233 


186 


150 


116 


117 


80 


53 


16 


4 


.21-. 25 


55 


167 


194 


250 


183 


254 


212 


224 


189 


109 


23 


4 


.26-. 30 


27 


134 


217 


250 


295 


285 


259 


238 


220 


106 


22 





.31-35 


17 


88 


139 


204 


206 


231 


211 


240 


185 


82 


15 


5 


.36-. 40 


10 


35 


72 


133 


130 


142 


170 


161 


120 


40 


5 





.41-. 45 


6 


22 


50 


70 


83 


85 


68 


108 


57 


19 


1 


2 


.46-. 50 


3 


9 


25 


30 


35 


29 


40 


34 


26 


6 







.51-. 55 





6 


12 


18 


12 


14 


14 


13 


6 


3 







.56-. 60 





5 


6 


5 


4 


5 


6 


4 







. . 


1 


.61-. 65 


1 





2 


1 


3 


1 


6 














.66-. 70 




2 


1 














1 







Total cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88 19 
Median .121 .181 .235 .258 .280 .283 .297 .301 .294 .276 .260 .241 

The reason for plotting the graphs from the East Cleve- 
land groups only instead of from the combined ratings of 
the several cities is because that city, practically without 
a foreign population, represents the most homogeneous large 
group of any of the groups studied. From mere inspection 
it will be seen that the ratings of the East Cleveland children 
approach more closely the normal probability curve of dis- 
tribution in the first one or two grades and school years 
than do the ratings by the several cities combined. How- 
ever, for all other grades and ages the combined ratings not 

27 



only are quite as nearly normal as the East Cleveland groups 
but, in consequence of their much larger numbers they are 
much smoother. 

Since the skewness in the first grades and ages increased 
with the number of foreign children in the several cities 
studied it is very highly probable that this skewness for 
the first grades and ages of the combined groups is due 
to the presence there of the relatively large number of 
children who did not understand English. Although this 
test "gets across" very well with non-English speaking 
people who understand spoken English, neither this very 
simple picture test nor any other available group test does 
justice to those not understanding English. Because of 
this fact the authors of The Myers Mental Measure are now 
developing a test which presumes to be a measure equally 
good with non-English speaking persons not understanding 
English and all other types of persons. It will be especially 
suited to members of Americanization classes. 

Group Comparison by Medians 

Ordinarily groups are compared in terms of averages. A 
measure much simpler than the average, a measure which 
to most means about the same as the average, and which, 
when the distribution is approximately normal, is prac- 
tically the same as the average, is the median. The median 
score is that score above which fall as many cases as the 
number of cases that fall below it. 

Suppose for example, nine children scored as follows: 
19, 17, 20, 23, 25, 24, 22, 21, 18. Arranged in order their 
scores would be 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17. Here the 

28 



middle case is 21, or the score of that individual above whose 
score as many cases fall as the number who fall below it. 
When one has a large group the procedure is, in general, 
the same, though of course not quite so simple. 

Now let us compute the median from the distribution: 

Raw Score Number cases 

1-5 2 

6-10 5 

11-15 8 

16-20 5 

21-25 2 

Total number cases 22 

The median will be the value reached by counting down 
11 cases or up 11 cases. It will be seen that the median 
raw score will fall somewhere in the step 11-15. Counting 
down, 7 cases are used up above this step 11-15. Four 
more cases are needed out of the 8 cases. Therefore -f 
of 1 step will be added to the value used up. One step equals 
5 points. Then f of 5 equals 2.5. Since values of scores 
counting down increase, the median is 11 plus 2.5 or 13.5. 

To verify this median let us count upward. Again 7 
cases are used up and 4 are needed out of the group of 8 
cases. Therefore -f of 1 step equals -f of 5 or 2.5. Since 
the scores decrease in value counting downward the median 
is 16-2.5 or 13.5. 

By extending the lines representing the median of each 
group on the distribution graphs as with graphs on page 20, 
one can easily see how much each group reaches or exceeds 
or falls below in value the median of every other group. In 
that way one can get a bird's-eye view of the ratings of a 
whole school svstem. 

29 



One can also compare the values where the highest number 
of cases fall. This measure is called the mode. For example 
for grade one (East Cleveland) the mode by raw score is 
at 11-15 ; for grade two, at 16-20. It will be seen that the 
mode approximates the median. If the distribution were 
wholly normal these two measures would be identical. 

What are Norms? 

A test does not mean much until it is standardized i.e., 
until ratings by it have been compiled from a relatively 
large number of representative cases from each age and 
grade for which that test is designed. The average or the 
median score by a standardized test for each age and grade 
is called the norm or standard for that age and grade by 
that test. By virtue of its norms or standards is a test said 
to be standardized. The norms for The Myers Mental 
Measure are in terms of the median (see pages 54 and 55.) 

Although the distribution graphs are based on the 3,092 
cases of East Cleveland the norms, and the tables from 
which these norms were derived, are based on 15,241 cases. 
From these norms one reads for example that the median 
first grade child makes a raw score of 13 points, and intelli- 
gence ratio of .15; the median fifth grade child makes a raw 
score of 39 points and an intelligence ratio of .29; the 
median child of 8 years makes a raw score of 23 points, and 
an intelligence ratio of .24; the median child of 12 years 
makes a raw score of 44 points, and an intelligence ratio of 
.30. 

Only 36 out of the 15,241 cases, including kindergarten 
and first grade children, failed to score. This means that 

30 



this same scale of four pages which is so difficult that no 
adult has ever made a perfect score on it, is at the same time, 
so easy that the first grade child almost never wholly fails 
to score. Only 5 of the 45 kindergarten children failed to 
score. However, the kindergarten children were tested 
in groups of from 2 to 6, as they should be with this or any 
other group intelligence test. 

Correlation with Stanford-Binet 

The Myers Mental Measure* was checked up with Stan- 
ford-Binet on about 300 school children pretty equally 
distributed throughout the grades, with a correlation of 
about .80 for each grade. For the respective grades the 
correlations were from first to eighth inclusive; .81, .83, 
.86, .85, .78, .78, .89, .68. With the first four tests of Alpha 
given to 39 convalescent soldiers this test correlated .91. 

These high correlations for the respective school grades 
are all the more significant since they are obviously on 
relatively homogeneous groups. Had the correlation been 
computed regardless of grade it would have been much 
higher. | 

Who Shall Interpret the Ratings of an Intelligence 

Test? 

By following the instructions of the test literally almost 
anyone can give a group test with precision, but inter- 
pretation of the ratings require considerable skill. The 

*A Group Intelligence Test. Caroline E\ Myers and Garry C. Myers. 
School and Society, Sept. 20, 1919. Pp. 355-360. 

f "A Grave Fallacy in Intelligence Test Correlations." Garry C. Myers. 
School and Society. May, 1920, pp. 528-529. 

31 



superintendent or his clinical psychologist or expert in 
measurements are usually the competent interpreters. 
Any teacher, however, can learn a great deal about her 
children, of value in her teaching, by studying their com- 
parative ratings in the test, especially when these ratings 
are reduced to intelligence ratios. Even where there is an 
expert to interpret the data, the teacher should have in her 
class record-book, opposite the name of each child, his 
intelligence ratio and she should have in her book the 
norm for that grade. She should be urged to check up con- 
stantly each child's school progress with his rating. How- 
ever, the teacher should be cautioned against attempting 
individual diagnoses on the basis of such ratings. Each 
child's rating she should consider merely as a probable 
measure of his ability and in no wise as a final perfect 
measure. In case a child's school progress does not reason- 
ably correspond with his intelligence rating he should be 
referred to the clinician. Furthermore, neither the clinician 
nor the teacher should divulge to the children their intelli- 
gence ratings. 

Pitfalls in Interpretation 

Too many teachers, and even administrators, look upon 
intelligence tests as a kind of panacea for all ills, as an 
infallible measure. There is a tendency to interpret a score 
by any child as a perfect measure of that child's intelli- 
gence. Indeed there is a wide tendency for teachers and 
others to refer to the intelligence of this child or that. 

For example, "This child has an intelligence of 43 or of 
72" is a type of a current bad usage. Instead one should 

32 



get into the habit of saying, "This Child's raw score by The 
Myers Mental Measure/' for example, "is thus and so." 

Using the Ratings 

In a large number of cases intelligence ratings have been 
made and left to go unused. Although some schoolmen 
may find such ratings a kind of fashionable ornament, these 
ratings are justified only when used. 

Selecting Ability Groups within Grades 

In general, these ratings should be used as follows: 
Arrange the names of the children of a given grade of a 
given building in order of the scores of those children. 
For The Myers Mental Measure the scores to be used in such 
grouping are the intelligence ratios. Having determined the 
number of classes and their respective sizes count off, begin- 
ning with those children rating highest, the number of 
children desired for the brightest class. Then count off the 
number desired for the next brightest class, and so on for that 
entire grade. 

After a few weeks those children advancing in their school 
work more slowly or more rapidly than their section would 
warrant should be examined by the clinical psychologist 
and reclassified by her accordingly. In the absence of a 
clinician the teacher's careful records will determine the 
position of the few probable misfits. In all events the 
teacher's judgment in reference to such "variable" children 
should be taken into account. 



33 



Regkouping at Promotion 

It would seem that at promotion time the children of 
each ability section of a given grade would naturally be 
promoted to the corresponding ability section of the higher 
grade. In practice it is not so simple, since the number 
promoted from all sections within a given grade or failing 
promotion in the corresponding sections of the next higher 
grade is not always the same, there will have to be a reshifting 
from group to group at promotion. 

Here is the scheme for promotion of ability groups worked 
out with illiterate soldiers by the authors of The Myers 
Mental Measure for the War Department, which scheme 
has been pretty closely adhered to in practically all the 
Army Americanization Schools.* 

In promotion, pool the names of all who are to be promoted 
to a given grade with those who are to remain in that grade. 
Opposite each name place the original intelligence rating 
(the intelligence ratio for children below the high school) 
of that pupil. Then rank these names in order of their 
respective rating, and beginning with the highest, count off 
the number desired for each successive ability group as 
in the original classification. By this scheme the desired 
size of each class can be determined exactly and the ability 
grouping in accordance with intelligence ratings will be as 
nearly perfect as possible. 

This plan does not necessitate retesting. Certainly it 
would not be desirable nor economical to test children 

* "Prophecy of Learning Progress by Beta." Garry C. Myers., Jr. Ed. 
Psychol. April, 1921, pp. 228-231. 



34 



each school term. However, it may be very desirable to 
test them every few years. 

Acceleration of Bright Children not Most Desirable 

What shall be done with the brighter children? There is 
considerable precedent for accelerating them, letting them 
do two or three terms of work in one. More often individu- 
als have been allowed to skip grade largely on the strength 
of their intelligence rating. 

The authors of The Myers Mental Measure deplore this 
attempted solution of the problem of the bright child 
because it tends to get through the school earliest the very 
children who ought to profit most by staying in school 
longest, and who, in turn, ought to get most in school for 
social service. In other words, acceleration of the bright 
child, in the long run, is a loss to the community. 

Enrichment of the Curriculum within Each Grade 
According to Ability Groups 

Instead of speeding up the progress through the grades 
there should be a broadening and enriching of the course 
of study within each grade, for the brighter children. Let 
that be specified in black and white just as the regular tradi- 
tional curriculum for Grade II, for example, is specified. 
Then for the next higher-ability group let there be just as 
specific a course — the minimum requirement plus certain 
very definite work for this second section. For the next 
higher section let there be the requirement of this second 
ability group plus a specific addition. Let each addition 



35 



be in terms of breadth and not a reaching over into fields 
of a higher grade; and by all means let the requirement for 
each ability group be put down specifically and let these 
requirements be strictly adhered to. 

This will mean that in the long run the grades earned by 
the best section will not be higher than the grades earned 
in a lower section. It will mean that a child in the best 
section may fail promotion as well as the child of a lower 
section, or he may be shifted to a lower section, if he fails 
to measure up to the high standard of his section. 

Scheme Presupposes Ungraded Classes for Lowest 

Deviates 

Ordinarily the lowest rating section will,, on the whole, be 
more inferior to the next ability group than this group will 
be inferior to its next higher group, because of the extremely 
low cases who hardly adapt themselves at all to school 
procedure. Consequently there is needed in each building 
of ten or more rooms an ungraded class to include these 
deviates of low-grade intelligence in order to free the lowest 
sections of each grade from their burden, and in order to 
make these children happier by giving them the kind of 
activity they can best profit by. 

Right Use of Intelligence Ratings Will Mean Social 

Responsibility 

This will mean social responsibility in terms of capacity. 
The child who falls in the upper groups will readily get the 
idea that by virtue of his being in that group much more is 
expected of him, that after all society not only will expect 

36 



more of him but will demand more. His only distinction 
for being in the best section will be the opportunity for more 
work. By such procedure the intelligence test becomes a 
tool for wider and more effective democracy. 

Wrong Use of Intelligence Tests are a Social Danger 
Unfortunately very often when there has been division of 
grades into ability groups all the different ability sections 
have had practically the same work to do. This means 
that the teacher and the children of the better sections 
could attain a high grade of work with but small effort. 
It means, too, that those of the better sections learn to look 
upon themselves as superior individuals with consequent 
freedom from certain drudgery of their unfortunate neigh- 
bors of the lower ability group, and with the opportunity 
to exaggerate their awareness of superiority by earning 
higher grades. Snobbery, on the part of the children of the 
better group, and jealousy, and all sorts of unrest, on the 
part of the parents of the children in the lower groups is the 
inexorable consequence. The children of the lower groups 
are stamped as all the more inferior. The administrator 
consequently has his troubles, for there is a scramble by the 
solicitous parents to have their children stamped as superior, 
and certainly not to be " stigmatized " as inferior. 

Since the greater percentage of the children from the 
highest social and economic group fall into the brightest 
class and the greater percentage of the children from the 
lowest social and economic group fall into the dullest class,* 
the problem becomes all the more acute. 

* " Comparative Intelligence of Three Social Groups within the Same 
School." School and Society, April 30, 1921, pp. 536-539. 

37 



Solution of the Problem 

If, on the other hand, for each ability group within each 
grade there is a specifically prescribed course increasing in 
breadth and richness with the ability of the groups, the 
solution is rather simple. The anxious parent, then, 
whose child is classed in the lowest group, and who insists 
that his child belongs in the highest group, can be made 
to see that that child, although able to pass his grade in the 
lowest section, would fail to make his grade in the bright- 
est section. This parent can be convinced that his child is 
where he belongs. Let him not only see his boy recite 
where he is in the lowest section, but let that parent become 
familiar with how much more would be expected of the 
child, as indicated by the curriculum definitely prescribed, 
if that child were in the brightest section. Moreover, let 
such a parent actually see the children of the brighter 
section at work. 

A Matter of Educating Teachers and the Public 

Support of the heartiest nature will back up this program 
and result in the right kind of education of the teachers and 
the public. What we need is the revamping of the whole 
school system so that there will be ability groups for whom 
in each grade, throughout that whole school system, there 
will be a properly adjusted curriculum commensurate with 
the ability of the several groups. 

Advantages to Children of Ability Grouping 

Provided of course the curriculum is so adjusted as to 
properly enrich the work for these brighter children, the 

38 



children from whom should come the bulk of the leaders of 
the community, the bright children should profit most from 
ability grouping. 

Advantages to the Bright Child 

Teachers do not always find the bright child. Some- 
times the whole school fails to discover him. The bright 
child, just because of his superior ability, may discover, in 
the first few weeks of school, that what his classmates do is 
so commonplace as to be beneath the dignity of his effort. 
Thus with wounded pride, such a child may not only grow 
listless but actually may build up habits of defense where 
he definitely tries to become oblivious to the monotonous 
routine of the school. Consequently there comes a time 
when those his inferior classmates, by dint of mere repetition 
and exposure to class routine, master the school requirements 
to a point where the content and technique may be 
beyond this bright child. This bright child may be all the 
more annoyed by the fact that those he is sure are of less 
ability have mastered what by him is not easily handled. 
Such a bright child may appear to the teacher as a hopeless 
child and indeed almost stupid. 

If, on the other hand, that child had been stimulated to 
expend a reasonable amount of effort from the beginning 
and had developed a correct attitude and correct habits of 
school procedure, his rare ability might easily have been 
realized by appropriate development. 

It is not enough that a test check up pretty well with 
teachers' judgments. If the measure of a good test were 
that test's ability to check up by its scores with the judg- 

39 



merit of the teacher then intelligence testing would hardly 
be justified. The chief service of an intelligence test is to 
find ability that the teacher is not likely to find. In other 
words, a good test ought to tell what a child can do rather 
than what he has done or will do. Once rare ability is 
discovered it is the teacher's job to see that such ability 
develops. 

It is not always an easy job to develop the bright child. 
Even though the teacher knows a certain child has superior 
ability she may have difficulty with that child, especially 
if he has been discovered only after he has gone pretty far 
through the grades. By that time his habits of listlessness 
and indifference may be so fixed that he will not be reached 
by the ablest teacher. Such a child should have been 
found in the first grade and never should have been allowed 
to develop his bad attitudes. Hence the obvious desirability 
of classifying children on entering school. 

Advantages to the Mediocre Child Who is Over- 
industrious 

Perhaps most of the nervous breakdowns in school are 
among the children of mediocre ability. Such children, 
endowed with unusual industry, are keenly sensitive to the 
suggestion of anxious parents and friends to the end that 
they feel they must rank high or among the best in their 
class. By undue expenditure of effort these children some- 
times do attain to high rank and even to the first place in 
their class. But it is at a tremendous cost. In such cases 
industry is mistaken for native capacity to learn. Cer- 



40 



tainly a good many unhappy boys and girls, especially of 
the adolescent age number among this group of unfortu- 
nates. 

An intelligence rating, then, will often suggest that certain 
individuals are scoring too high in school performance. If 
such ratings are properly checked up, they afford the teacher 
and principal the kind of information that ought to be a 
great blessing to that kind of child. Not only will the school 
seek to guide that child to expend less energy at learning but 
every effort will be used to help the parents and friends to 
see the danger of their urging him on unduly. 

Advantages to the Dull Child 

The low-grade child will also profit by classification into 
ability groups. Of course one hears on every side that by 
such grouping the children of lower ability will lose by the 
absence of the stimulating influence of the brighter children. 
But this argument is ill founded. In the first place, in the 
traditional school, the brightest children are so superior to 
the dullest children that the latter cannot hope to compete 
at all. Their inferiority is multiplied in their own eyes 
because of the display of the bright children's excelling 
ability. On the other hand, if the dull child is with those 
more nearly of his level of intelligence he is not so often 
discouraged. Moreover, just because there are others in 
his class of like ability his lessons necessarily are far more 
easily within his reach. Consequently he can learn more 
and feel happier in doing so than while in the traditional 
class. 



41 



What of the Single Class School Grade? 

In case there is only, one class to a grade in a given build- 
ing or a school system, obviously there would be two or more 
ability sections within that class selected just as if they were 
separate ability classes of the same grade. 

Intelligence Ratings in Country Schools 

In the ungraded district school the problem of intelligence 
classification grows more complex. Although the teacher 
cannot well increase her groupings, if she has several grades, 
she can find early those of marked ability and encourage 
them, and stimulate them to high activity. Likewise she 
can find in the ratings reasons why certain children have 
failed to make progress in spite of great care and effort 
on her part. Just because it applies to all ages and grades 
The Myers Mental Measure is well adapted to ungraded 
rural schools. Within about 25 minutes all the children of 
such a school can be tested as a single group. A number of 
entire counties have been surveyed by it. For the same 
reason this test has proved, in the several states where it is 
being used, to be very well suited for use in corrective 
and penal institutions in classifying learners into ability 
groups for school training. 

Advantages of the Use of Intelligence Tests to the 
Supervisor and School Administrator 

By the aid of intelligence tests the administrator can 
evaluate his school product much more accurately than he 
can without their use. If, for example, he finds, by means 
of the best standardized educational measurements that one 

42 



class or one school is superior or inferior to another class or. 
school how is he to know the cause of such disparity? The 
tendency often used to be to assume that the difference was 
a matter of the schools and in the last analysis a matter of 
the teachers. But by the use of intelligence tests it has 
been found that such differences are often attributable to 
differences in native abilities of the children compared. 
When children are divided into ability groups within each 
grade the results obtained by each group, of course, can be 
expected to be in proportion to the abilities of the several 
groups. Any variation can, for the most part, be located 
in the teaching. Therefore, by knowing the relative intel- 
ligence rating of the several classes of a given grade the 
supervisor and administrator can be able to evaluate pretty 
accurately the relative merits of the teachers of that grade. 
This obviously promotes fairness to the teachers. 

Advantages to the Teacher 

By promoting fairness to the teacher from the supervisor 
and school administrator, teaching morale and consequent 
efficiency will inexorably heighten. Moreover, the teacher 
can better evaluate her own efforts by checking up the 
school progress of each child with his intelligence rating and 
by comparing his class rating and class achievement with 
those of other classes. She is always eager to know whether 
this child or that is getting along as rapidly as he should 
and sometimes suffers grave anxiety about certain children 
doing very poorly in school. An intelligence test reveals 
to her that such children usually are low in abilities and con- 
sequently should not be expected to make much progress. 

43 



On the other hand, she may also discover that a few such 
children have considerable ability and as a result she will 
set about with renewed effort and varied methods to develop 
them. At any rate the information from an intelligence 
test, which as a rule, is more reliable than her judgment, 
will greatly decrease her anxieties, increase her efficiency 
and add to her encouragement. 

Advantages to the Industrial Employer 

Intelligence ratings aid the employer to pick out his 
potentially ablest men early. Especially is this true where 
the type of work is such as to admit and develop unskilled 
persons, from whom it is desired to pick foremen and other 
leaders. Because it is independent of school experience and 
applies to all ages The Myers Mental Measure works par- 
ticularly well with unskilled laborers. 

General Directions to Examiners 

1. Up to and including the fourth grade, all children 
should be tested in their regular class rooms. In case of 
overcrowded rooms the proper number of children should be 
removed therefrom, These overflow children from several 
grades can be assembled in any available room to be tested 
together. In like manner those children absent on the 
day of the test and those entering school subsequent thereto 
can, on a later date, all be assembled for the test regardless 
of grade. From the fifth grade upward as many as can be 
comfortably seated at appropriate writing places (prefer- 
ably in every other seat) in the assembly hall, regardless of 
the number of grades included, can be tested at one time. 

44 



2. The room should be as quiet as possible, devoid of 
disturbances. The door should be closed. The teacher 
or any other person should not be allowed to walk about the 
room ]ooking over the children's papers while they are at 
work. 

3. The desk should be cleared. 

4. Each child should be provided with two sharp pencils. 

5. The children should be made to feel at ease. 

6. Children, as well as adults, should know from the out- 
set, by the examiner's attitude, that no fooling will be tol- 
erated. 

7. Let the examiner proceed in a quiet but effective man- 
ner with a voice in moderate pitch, giving the directions 
slowly, clearly, and distinctly. 

8. The examiner should avoid undue haste or anything 
that will annoy or excite those to be examined. Neither 
should he pause unduly between tests. 

9. There should be strict precaution against copying. 

10. Below the fifth grade, age records, to be accurate, 
should be got from the school office. 

11. Because the first grade is the hardest to test it is best 
for the examiner to begin with about the third grade, then 
proceed downward to the first grade, and then upward 
from the fourth grade. It is never well to test from the 
highest grades downward because of coaching dangers. 

12. The examiner must be thoroughly familiar with the 
directions, so that he can accurately read them with ease. 
There is no objection to memorizing them if they are 
learned verbatim. Any variation, however, by addition 
to the specific directions of the test, subtraction from them, 

45 



or modification, will render the ratings of questionable 
accuracy. 

13. There should be as few examiners as possible to test a 
given system in the same day or half day.* 

All examiners of a given system should be coached by the 
superintendent, or a competent person designated by him, 
in giving the test in exact accordance with directions. 

14. Time should be recorded with great precision, exactly 
to the second, and from the word "Go." A stop watch is 
essential. In the absence of a good stop watch, one with a 
second hand may be substituted, if read with great accuracy. 
No one should presume to count seconds without a watch. 

15. Inquiries by the children or adults at the close of the 
test in respect to correct answers should unoffensively be 
ignored. 

16. The scoring can be done by clerical aides or anyone 
able to follow the directions accurately; but the directions 
for scoring must be followed to the letter regardless of what 
may seem to the scorer to be right or wrong. As a rule a 
teacher should not score the papers of her own children. 
In case the teachers do the scoring it is recommended that, 
in any large school building, teachers be divided into squads 
of four, with each one of the squad responsible for a page. 
All combining and adding of scores should be checked up by 
a second individual. 

* Supt. W. H. Kirk of East Cleveland had all his 3,092 elementary children 
tested in the same half day. 



46 



THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE 

Directions for Giving the Tests 

"We are going to give you some papers. We will lay 
them on your desk this side up. (Examiner demonstrating.) 
You may look at the pictures on the first page as much as 
you wish but don't turn the pages. 

• "Now write your name at the top of the page. In the 
next space write the number of years you were old at your 
last birthday. (Examiner pausing until all have finished.) 
Now count the number of months since your last birthday 
and put that number in the next space. In the next space 
write your grade. (This direction can be given only to 
children above the fourth grade. Age records for children 
below the fourth grade should be got from the school office.) 

" I want you to do some things for me. Some of them will 
be very easy and some will be hard. You will not be able 
to do all of them, but do the very best you can. 

"I am going to ask you to draw some lines and make some 
marks. Listen closely to what I say. Don't ask any ques- 
tions and don't look at anybody's paper but your own." 

Test 1 

(In giving directions it is safe to assume that first and 
second grade children can go no farther than row seven, and 

47 



third and fourth grade children no farther than row nine 
on this page. All other pages given just as to upper grades.) 

"Look at your paper. Just below where you have 
written your name there are several rows of pictures. First 
you will be asked to do something with the row with the girl 
and the flower, and then something with the alligator, toad, 
and eagle, and then something with the row of fruit, then 
something with the row beginning with a cat, and then the 
row beginning with a soldier; and so on down the page, one 
row at a time. 

"When I say 'Stop/ stop right away and hold your pencil 
up so. (Examiner demonstrating.) Don't put your pencils 
down to your paper again until I say ' Go.' 

(For the first and second grades — "Now let me see if you 
know what I mean. Pencils up! Go! Pencils up! Go.") 
"Listen carefully to what I say, do just as you are told to do. 
Remember, wait until I say 'Go'. 

"Now pencils up. Look at the row with the girl and the 
flower. (E. pause here.) Draw a line from the girl's 
hand to the flower. Go ! (Allow not over 5 seconds.) 

(With Kindergarten and first grade instead of saying 
"Look at the row, etc." say "Put your finger on the row.") 

"Pencils up! Look at the row with the alligator. Make 
a cross above the alligator and another cross below the 
toad. Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds.) 

"Pencils up! Look at the row of fruit. Draw a ring 
around the apple and make a cross below the first banana. 
Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds.) 

"Pencils up! Look at the row beginning with a cat. 
Draw a line from the cat's paw that shall pass below the duck 

48 



and fish to the mouth of the rabbit. Go! (Allow not 
over 5 seconds.) 

" Pencils up! Now look at the line beginning with a 
soldier. Draw a line from the tip of the soldier's gun to 
the tip of the sword that shall pass below the drum and 
above the boat. Go ! (Allow not over 5 seconds.) 

" Pencils up! Look at the row with the table. Make a 
cross below the comb and then draw a line from the handle 
of the pitcher above the clock and shoe to the top of the 
barrel. Go! (Allow not over 10 seconds.) 

" Pencils up! Look at the square and circle. Make a 
cross that shall be in the circle but not in the square and 
make another cross that shall be in the circle and in the 
square and make a third cross that shall not be in the circle 
and not be in the square. Go! (Allow not over 10 
seconds.) 

" Pencils up ! Look at the row with the two pails. Draw 
a short straight line below the middlesized tree, draw a circle 
around the cup and then draw a line from the top of the 
smallest tree to the top of the largest tree. Go! (Allow 
not over 15 seconds.) 

(N.B. Examiner — In reading don't pause at the word 
CUP as if ending a sentence.) 

"Pencils up! Look at the row beginning with a duck. 
Draw a line from the tail of the duck above the fox to the 
feet of the turkey and then continue the line below the tree to 
the nose of the Indian and back to the ear of the fox. Go! 
(Allow not over 15 seconds.) 

(N.B. Examiner — In reading don't pause at the word 
TURKEY as if ending a sentence.) 

49 






j 
" Pencils up ! Now look at the row beginning with a pear. 

Cross out every fruit that is next to a knife but not next to 

an animal or book and make a cross above every fruit that is 

next to a book. Go! (Allow not over 15 seconds.) 

" Pencils up! Look at the line beginning with a spider. 
Make a cross below every spider that is next to a butterfly 
and make a cross above every butterfly that is next to a 
spider or a toad but not next to an elephant. Go ! (Allow 
not over 20 seconds.) 

" Pencils up! Look at the row of circles. Draw a line 
from the first circle to the last circle that shall pass below 
the second and fourth circles and above the third and fifth 
circles — make a cross in the first circle, a cross above the 
fourth circle and anything except a cross in the last circle. 
Go!" (Allow not over 20 seconds.) 

(Be sure the page is not turned until demonstration chart 
for Test 2 is used.) 

Test 2 

"Now look at your small paper like this. (E. holding one 
in his hand.) Here are three pictures — a duck, a dishpan, 
and a shoe, but none of them are finished. Who can tell 
me how to finish the duck? (After some child has given 
answer:) Now with your pencil put the eye in the duck. 
Who can tell me how to finish the dishpan? Draw the 
handle on the dishpan." (Proceed in like manner with 
the shoe.) 

"Now turn over your large sheet this way (E. folding so 
that only page 2 is visible) to the picture of the coffee pot. 
Look at my paper. (E. holding up proper test sheet.) 

50 



Here are a number of pictures. None of them are finished. 
Each one has just one thing missing. Work like this 
(E. demonstrating by pointing to each picture from left to 
right in the first three rows). Finish as many as you can 
before I say 'Stop.' Work fast." (Total time 4 minutes.) 

Test 3 

"Take this small paper again and turn it over to the side 
with the tree at the top. Now look at my paper. (E. 
demonstrating by slowly pointing from left to right of each 
row.) See, it's in rows. Look at your paper like this. In 
the first row on your paper there are two things, only two, 
alike in some way. Who can tell me what they are? 
(Pause for response.) 

"Pencils up! We will draw a short line under each of the 
trees. Go! Pencils up! In the next row there are three 
things, only three, alike in some way. What are they? 
Draw a line under each flower. Go! Pencils up! (Pro- 
ceed in the same way for third row, always giving ample 
time for every child to finish. Before doing more the 
experimenter makes sure every child has properly marked 
each item of the demonstration sheet, helping any child 
who has not succeeded.) 

"Now turn over your large sheets. You have a picture 
of a log at the top. Now don't say anything. (With small 
children examiner gesturing with hand over mouth.) Now 
look at my paper. (E. demonstrating as for chart.) See, 
the pictures are in rows. In each of these rows there are a 
number of things alike in some way. Pencils up. Look at 
the row beginning with a log. In this row there are two 

51 



things, only two, alike in some way. Draw lines under them. 
Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds for any row in test 3.) 

"Pencils up! In the next row beginning with a robin 
there are two things, just two, alike In some way. Draw 
lines under them. Go! 

" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the square there 
are two things, just two, alike in some way. Go! 

" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the oyster there 
are three things, just three, alike in some way. Go! 

" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the shoes there 
are three things alike in some way. Go!" 

" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the umbrella 
there are three things. Go ! 

" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the piano there 
are four things. Go! 

" Pencils up ! The next row begins with a ladder. In it 
there are four things. Go! 

"Pencils up ! In the row beginning with the fish there are 
four things alike in some way. Go! 

"Pencils up! In the last row there are five things. Go! 

Pencils up!" 

Test 4 

"Turn your page this way (E. demonstrating). You 
have the boy and grapes at the top. 

"In each row on this page there are four things, only four, 
alike in some way. Draw lines under them as you did before. 
Begin with the first row. When you get that row done do 
the next row, then do the next row and then the next row. 
Whole page. (E. demonstrating by gestures on the page.) 
Go!" (Total time 5 minutes.) 

52 



Directions for Scoring 

Answers are considered right or wrong. No partial credits 
are given. A good scheme is to have for each scorer a 
correctly marked test sheet with each unit so numbered as 
to indicate credits assigned. 

Test 1. — Direction Test. 

No credit is given for any answer in which more is done 

than is required. 
Underlining in place of crossing out or a straight line 
instead of a cross is wrong. 

Credits Given. — 
To row 1 — one point; to rows 2, 3, 4, 5 — two points 
each; to rows 6, 7, 8 — three points each; to rows 
9, 10 — five points each; and to rows 11, 12 — ten 
points each. 

Test 2. — Picture Completion Test. 

Any way of clearly indicating missing part receives 
credit. So long as proper missing part is given, 
additional parts do not make answer wrong. 

Credits Given. — 
To coffee pot, saw, tree, stove and telegraph — one point 
each; to clothes on line and man at mirror — two 
points each; to all other pictures — five points each. 
Note. — Parts missing — coffee pot, handle; saw, teeth; 
tree, axe; stove, pipe; telegraph, wire or wires; man at 
mirror, glasses (one glass indicated is counted) ; clothes on 
line, clothespins on line; wringer, clothes coming from 
wringer; candle, shadow by spool; blocks, shadow length- 
ened or two blocks added; teakettle, steam from spout or 

53 



cover; house, smoke from chimney; ocean, waves on water; 
bov, tracks on snow. 

Test 3. — First Common Elements. 
Each row counts one point. 

Note — Correct common elements in order of rows. 
Dogs, birds, circles, weapons, footwear, things with four 
legs, musical instruments, animates or inanimates, things 
that give light or things to eat, squares with dot in center 
and above. 

Test 4. — Second Common Elements. 

To all rows up to 9 — one point each; to rows 9, 10, and 
11 — three points each; to rows 12, 13, 14, and 15 — 
five points each. 

Note. — Correct common elements in order of rows. 
Boys, animals, toys, means of travel, things made of metal, 
things to eat or things not good to eat, flying things, things 
found in the kitchen, things of glass, things of wood, meas- 
ures, bipeds, harmful animals, scenes of summer, deeds of 
kindness. 

Norms 

By Grades Regardless of Chronological Ages 

No. 
cases 45 1410 1447 1721 1630 1922 1495 1610 1550 311 249 160 810 493 

Grades K I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Col- 
lege 

Median 
raw 
score 6 13 19 27 34 39 44 48 52 56 59 62 63 69 

Median 

Intel- 
ligence 
ratio , .15 .20 .24 .28 .29 .30 .30 .31 

54 



By Chronological Ages Regardless of Grades 

Number cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88 
Chronological age 

(Mental age) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

Median raw score 10 16 23 29 35 39 44 48 50 49 50 
Median intelligence 

ratio .12 .18 .24 .26 .28 .28 .30 .30 .29 .28 .26 

1. These grade norms are for the end of the school year. 
For September they would be almost a grade less. 

2. In interpreting the scores by ages it should be remem- 
bered that only the ratings of the elementary school children 
for each year are included. From the twelfth year onward 
the brightest children have passed from the grades to the 
high school. Hence the relatively lower ratings for the 
upper ages are as they should be. 

3. From the table entitled "Chronological Ages Regard- 
less of Grades" one reads, for example, "the median child 
6 years old scores 10 points; the median child 10 years old 
scores 35 points." Or reading upwards, "the child scoring 
10 points has a Mental Age of 6 years, the child scoring 35 
points has a Mental Age of 10 years. " 

4. Intelligence ratio equals raw score divided by chrono- 
logical-age-in-months. Intelligence ratio does not mean 
much above the high school and perhaps is not worth com- 
puting above the eighth grade. 

5. For comparing groups use raw score; for classifying 
learners use intelligence ratio. 



55 



As Books, like men, go better neatly drest, 

Let Paper, Print, & Binding be the Best. 

— Jared Bean, New Haven, 1773- 



The Anchor and the Dolphin 

— the sign of 

The Aldine Group of Textbooks 




on Reading, Spelling, and > Language, 
which, with respect to educational, artis- 
tic, and mechanical features, is the most 
distinctive product of one of the most 
important industries of our country. 



NEWSON & COMPANY 

73 Fifth Avenue :: :: New York 
623 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago 



THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE 

By CAROLINE E. MYERS and GARRY C. MYERS, Ph.D. 

Copyright, 1920. by Caroline E. Myers; Copyright, 1921. by Newson & Company — All right! reserved 



. AGE (yrs.) (mos.) GRADE SCHOOL. 




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